As of the late 1990’s, Chilean vineyards had never been victims of the lethal aphid phylloxera, which devastated most of the world’s vineyards in the mid- and late nineteenth century. Although Chile’s physical isolation, dry soil, and use of flood irrigation may have all helped to protect the country, phylloxera’s absence is not fully understood. Some scientists speculate that it’s only a matter of time before the pest finds a route in, despite the Chilean government’s strict quarantine requirements for plant materials.